Rommel, who was now in charge of defending France against possible Allied attack, thought the Allies would not attack during the stormy weather, and was on holiday in Germany. Between 1956 and 1962, almost 20 African countries achieved their independence from France. ", "7 Civil Wars in Africa We Must Never Forget", "The Yalta Conference - The Cold War (1945–1989) - CVCE Website", "The Sinews of Peace ('Iron Curtain Speech')", "The Incorporation of the Baltic States by the Soviet Union", "The End of WWII and the Division of Europe", "Red Century: From the 'October Revolution' in 1917, communism swept the globe. [242] The only impediment to another company duplicating the system's architecture was the proprietary BIOS software. After the conquest of Poland, the Third Reich, which had previously deported Jews and other "undesirables", suddenly had within its borders the largest concentration of Jews in the world. [155], Since the 1940s there were concerns about the rising proliferation of nuclear weapons to new countries, which was seen as being destabilizing to international relations, spurring regional arms races, and generally increasing the likelihood of some form of nuclear war. Wilbur and Orville Wright fly the world's first powered airplane. [176] Mere decades before, the British Empire controlled almost half of the continent, but by 1968, the only British possession in Africa was Seychelles (which would also become independent in 1976). The people of the Indian subcontinent, a sixth of the world population at the end of the century, had attained an indigenous independence for the first time in centuries. In 1934 Manchukuo became a constitutional monarchy and the former Chinese Emperor Pu Yi was placed on the throne, despite the real power being held by Japan. It is not possible to overstate the importance of the French Revolution to world history. Almost all of the major nations that were involved in World War II began shedding their overseas colonies soon after the conflict. The gap between rich and poor nations continued to widen. [26], When Adolf Hitler came to power in Germany in 1933, a new variant of fascism called Nazism took over Germany and ended the German experiment with democracy. [114] Despite the American troops outnumbering the Japanese to a rate of more than 3 to 1, the USA suffered heavy casualties in the 36 days of fighting, with over 6,800 Marines killed and another 20,000 wounded,[115] leading some historians to question the strategic worth of the action. [5] Although Germany shifted huge forces from the eastern to the western front after signing the treaty, it was unable to stop the Allied advance, especially with the entrance of American troops in 1918. 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Now, North Korea may be the one true survivor", "The secret strategy to launch attack on Red Army", "North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO), 1949", "Korean War, a 'Forgotten' Conflict That Shaped the Modern World", "Selling "Operation Passage to Freedom": Dr. Thomas Dooley and the Religious Overtones of Early American Involvement in Vietnam", "Military Pressures Against North Vietnam, February 1964-January 1965", "How the Tet Offensive Undermined American Faith in Government", "Opinion | The Four Stages of the Antiwar Movement", "Nixon Prolonged Vietnam War for Political Gain—And Johnson Knew About It, Newly Unclassified Tapes Suggest", "Norodom Sihanouk, Cambodian Leader Through Shifting Allegiances, Dies at 89", "Stuck in Endless Preliminaries: Vietnam and the Battle of the Paris Peace Table, November 1968-January 1969", "Forty years on from the fall of Saigon: witnessing the end of the Vietnam war", "Cuban Missile Crisis: For thirteen days in October 1962 the world waited—seemingly on the brink of nuclear war—and hoped for a peaceful resolution to the Cuban Missile Crisis", "Nuclear Close Calls: The Cuban Missile Crisis", "Why Yuri Gagarin Remains the First Man in Space, Even Though He Did Not Land Inside His Spacecraft", "Makings of Moon Landing: 50 Years Ago, Apollo 11 Was One Year From 'Giant Leap, "Soviet report detailing lunar rover Lunokhod-2 released for first time", "Space Shuttle: The First Reusable Spacecraft", "The Mir Space Station Was a Marvel, a Clusterfuck, and an Underdog Hero", "Why Skylab Was America's First And Best Home In Space", "International Space Station, ISS Information, Space Station Facts, News, Photos -- National Geographic", "Was the Sino-Soviet Split Borne of Ideology or Geostrategic Consideration? [105] This was followed one month later by the Battle of Midway, in which the US Navy defeated an attacking Japanese fleet, inflicting devastating damage on the attacking force. [250], Computer networks appeared in two main styles; the local area network, linking computers in an office or school to each other, and the wide area network, linking the local area networks together. Cuba, under Fidel Castro's socialist government, had formed close ties with the Soviet Union. [183], During the Yalta Conference, where the Western, capitalist powers, and the communist Soviet Union agreed on separate spheres of influence in Europe, they set up the stage for a geopolitical rivalry that would dominate international relations for the next five decades. [70] By this time, Rommel had been forced to abandon North Africa after a defeat by Montgomery at El Alamein in what was the first decisive victory of the Allies over the Germany army, leading Churchill to declare it "the end of the beginning". In any case, Allied soldiers reported that the smell of the camps carried for miles. Democratic governments assumed the responsibility to provide needed services in society, and to alleviate poverty. [247], Computers also became a usable platform for entertainment. Nelson Mandela – First President of post-apartheid South Africa. This changed when Tim Berners-Lee devised a simpler form of Vannevar Bush's hypertext, which he dubbed the World Wide Web. It's easy to say the world wouldn't be where it is today without the significant events that transpired throughout the 20th century. [149], The Allied team produced two nuclear weapons for use in the war, one powered by uranium-235 and the other by plutonium as fissionable material, named "Little Boy" and "Fat Man". The Battle of Midway is widely considered the most important naval battle of the Pacific Campaign and has even been described as "the most stunning and decisive blow in the history of naval warfare"[106] The reasons usually given for the resounding victory are Japanese overconfidence in their own forces, poor planning and the intercepting of Japanese battle plans by the United States. [47], With the disaster in the Low Countries, France, considered at the time to have had the finest army in the world, lasted only four weeks, with Paris being occupied on June 14. [116] With Japan struggling to defend the homeland islands, counteroffensives in other parts of the Japanese Empire became more feasible, with important battles taking place in Burma, Borneo and China. Following the Potsdam Declaration of July 26, where the Allies threatened "prompt and utter destruction" should Japan not surrender,[121] the decision was made to resort to the first use of atomic bombs. [223][224] In the 1990s, work on the International Space Station began, and by the end of the century, while still incomplete, it was in continual use by astronauts from the United States, Europe, Russia, Japan, and Canada. [146], During the 1930s, innovations in physics made it apparent that it could be possible to develop nuclear weapons of incredible power using nuclear reactions. Stalin had planned to evacuate the city, and had already moved important government functions, but decided to stay and rally the city. The first war was the Korean War, fought between People's Republic of China-backed North Korea and mainly United States-backed South Korea. Around half of the island's population of 300,000 were killed, committed suicide or went missing.

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