Synonym: 2-Propanol yttrium(III) salt, Isopropyl alcohol yttrium(III) salt, Tris(isopropoxy) yttrium(III) Empirical Formula (Hill Notation): C 9 H 21 O 3 Y Molecular Weight: 266.17 Isopropyl alcohol vapor is denser than air and is flammable, with a flammability range of between 2 and 12.7% in air. [32] A known issue is the formation of MIBK and other self-condensation products. Ihr Browser unterstützt kein JavaScript. Isopropyl alcohol is popular in particular for pharmaceutical applications,[16] due to its low toxicity. Together with ethanol, n-butanol, and methanol, it belongs to the group of alcohol solvents, about 6.4 million tonnes of which were used worldwide in 2011.[20]. Like most alcohols, isopropyl alcohol reacts with active metals such as potassium to form alkoxides that can be called isopropoxides. Erfahren Sie mehr über das Unternehmen LUMITOS und unser Team. In significant quantities, water is a problem in fuel tanks, as it separates from gasoline and can freeze in the supply lines at low temperatures. 2-Propanol kann, wie andere sekundäre Alkohole auch[2], mit Luftsauerstoff explosionsfähige Peroxide bilden. Isopropyl alcohol is a major ingredient in "gas dryer" fuel additives. In rare cases, respiratory failure leading to death in animals was observed. Zur Reinigung von CCD-Sensoren von digitalen Spiegelreflexkameras (Alternative: Zur Reinigung des Tonabnehmers/ der Abtastnadel eines Plattenspielers. The reaction with aluminium (initiated by a trace of mercury) is used to prepare the catalyst aluminium isopropoxide. However, it was soon discontinued, as many complications arose, including respiratory irritation, internal bleeding, and visual and hearing problems. [1], Isopropyl alcohol is miscible in water, ethanol, ether, and chloroform. Isopropyl alcohol is also used to remove brake fluid traces from hydraulic braking systems, so that the brake fluid (usually DOT 3, DOT 4, or mineral oil) does not contaminate the brake pads and cause poor braking. The process is colloquially called salting out, and causes concentrated isopropyl alcohol to separate into a distinct layer. Search results for Isopropanol at Sigma-Aldrich. It is used in the manufacture of a wide variety of industrial and household chemicals and is a common ingredient in chemicals such as antiseptics, disinfectants, and detergents. [18] Pure (anhydrous) isopropyl alcohol is made by azeotropic distillation of the wet isopropyl alcohol using either diisopropyl ether or cyclohexane as azeotroping agents. Damit Sie alle Funktionen auf Chemie.DE nutzen können, aktivieren Sie bitte JavaScript. Watch the recordings here on Youtube! isopropanol H2O. It is a structural isomer of 1-propanol. In the United Kingdom it costs the NHS about 3.90 pound per liter of 99% denatured alcohol. It dissolves ethyl cellulose, polyvinyl butyral, many oils, alkaloids, gums and natural resins. water isopropanol. [10] It has a slightly bitter taste, and is not safe to drink.[10][11]. Although isopropyl alcohol can be used for anesthesia, its many negative attributes or drawbacks prohibit this use. Microsoft Internet Explorer 6.0 unterstützt einige Funktionen auf Chemie.DE nicht. [16] As a biological specimen preservative, isopropyl alcohol provides a comparatively non-toxic alternative to formaldehyde and other synthetic preservatives. IUPAC considers isopropanol an incorrect name as the hydrocarbon isopropane does not exist. Zur Reinigung von Glasfasern z. The wholesale cost in the developing world is about 1.80 to 9.50 USD per litre of 70% denatured ethanol. Isopropanol schmilzt bei -88 °C, der Siedepunkt liegt in einem Bereich von etwa 81 bis 82 °C. Parent Compound: CID 3776 (Isopropyl alcohol) Component Compounds: CID 3776 (Isopropyl alcohol) CID 962 (Water) Dates: Modify: 2020-10-24. [26] Distillation of isopropyl alcohol over magnesium has been reported to form peroxides, which may explode upon concentration. It is a colorless, flammable chemical compound with a strong odor. Ist Propen der Ausgangsstoff, erfolgt eine saure Hydratisierung. Early uses included using the solvent as general anesthetic for small mammals[25] and rodents by scientists and some veterinarians. [16] Direct hydration is more commonly used in Europe. This process can use low-quality propene, and is predominant in the USA. Isopropyl alcohol is often sold in aerosol cans as a windshield or door lock deicer. Die Herstellung aus Propen erfolgt durch Hydratisierung an sauren Ionentauscherharzen als Katalysator: Ausgehend von Aceton erfolgt die Herstellung von Isopropanol durch Hydrierung: Durch Umkehrung dieser Reaktion wird großtechnisch Aceton aus Isopropanol durch Oxidehydrierung erzeugt, d. h. Dehydrierung mit gleichzeitiger Oxidation des entstandenen Wasserstoffs mit Sauerstoff zu Wasser. [14], In 1920, Standard Oil first produced isopropyl alcohol by hydrating propene. Isopropyl alcohol (IUPAC name propan-2-ol), also called isopropanol or dimethyl carbinol, is a compound with the chemical formula C 3 H 8 O or C 3 H 7 OH or CH 3 CHOHCH 3 (sometimes represented as i-PrOH). [16], Isopropyl alcohol dissolves a wide range of non-polar compounds. 3 Herstellung. pp 2143–2184, "A new method for the determination of the relative acidities of alcohols in alcoholic solutions. Isopropyl alcohol is often used in DNA extraction. This type of process usually requires higher-purity propylene (> 90%). Mit einem my.chemie.de-Account haben Sie immer alles im Überblick - und können sich Ihre eigene Website und Ihren individuellen Newsletter konfigurieren. Peroxid-Konzentrationen bis 4,2% wurden berichtet. Missed the LibreFest? Thus, it is used widely as a solvent and as a cleaning fluid, especially for dissolving oils. More... Molecular Weight: 78.11 g/mol. [10], Isopropyl alcohol forms an azeotrope with water, which gives a boiling point of 80.37 °C (176.67 °F) and a composition of 87.7 wt% (91 vol%) isopropyl alcohol. 1 Structures Expand this section. [27][28] Isopropyl alcohol is a skin irritant. [19], Indirect hydration reacts propene with sulfuric acid to form a mixture of sulfate esters. This is possible because DNA is insoluble in isopropyl alcohol. In Tierversuchen wurden keine Hinweise auf sensibilisierende oder mutagene Eigenschaften gefunden. vollständig mischbar mit Wasser[1], Ethanol, Aceton, Chloroform, Benzol. Isopropyl alcohol becomes increasingly viscous with decreasing temperature and freezes at −89 °C (−128 °F). Have questions or comments? It reacts with carbon disulfide and sodium hydroxide to give sodium isopropylxanthate, a herbicide and an ore flotation reagent. Grundstoffe der industriellen Darstellung von Isopropanol sind Aceton oder Propen. Furthermore, there is no indication for the use of fomepizole, an alcohol dehydrogenase inhibitor, unless co-ingestion with methanol or ethylene glycol is suspected. [21] Isopropyl alcohol reacts with titanium tetrachloride and aluminium metal to give titanium and aluminium isopropoxides, respectively, the former a catalyst, and the latter a chemical reagent. [16], Small amounts of isopropyl alcohol are produced in the body in diabetic ketoacidosis. 2-Propanol Strukturformel Allgemeines Name 2-Propanol Andere Namen Propan-2-ol (IUPAC) Propanol-2 Isopropanol Isopropylalkohol (IPA) sekundärer Propylalkohol These processes give primarily isopropyl alcohol rather than 1-propanol, because adding water or sulfuric acid to propene follows Markovnikov's rule. Diisopropyl ether is a significant by-product of this process; it is recycled back to the process and hydrolyzed to give the desired product.[16]. Beim Abdestillieren von IPA bis zur Trockene ist es deshalb zu teils schweren Unfällen gekommen. A lab worker adds it to a DNA solution to precipitate the DNA, which then forms a pellet after centrifugation. As an isopropyl group linked to a hydroxyl group, it is the simplest example of a secondary alcohol, where the alcohol carbon atom is attached to two other carbon atoms. 2-Propanol, auch als Isopropylalkohol oder Isopropanol (abgekürzt IPA) bekannt, ist der kleinste nicht-cyclische, sekundäre Alkohol. Ihr Bowser ist nicht aktuell. Direct hydration reacts propene and water, either in gas or liquid phase, at high pressures in the presence of solid or supported acidic catalysts. In that year, 5400 metric tonnes were used for household purposes and in personal care products. Die Dämpfe wirken betäubend. World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines, Appearance: 2-Propanol, anhydrous, 99.5+%, packaged under Argon in resealable ChemSeal^t bottles; 2-Propanol, anhydrous, 99.5+%; 2-Propanol, GC Grade, 99.7+%; 2-Propanol, Spectrophotometric Grade, 99.7+%; 2-Propanol, ACS, 99.5% min; 2-Propanol, HPLC Grade, 99.7+%; 2-Propanol, 99+%; 2-Propanol, anhydrous, 99.5+%, packaged under Argon in resealable ChemSeal^t bottles; 2-Propanol, anhydrous, 99.5+%; 2-Propanol, GC Grade, 99.7+%; 2-Propanol, Spectrophotometric Grade, 99.7+%; 2-Propanol, ACS, 99.5% min; 2-Propanol, HPLC Grade, 99.7+%; 2-Propanol, 99+%; Colorless liquid with the odor of rubbing alcohol. There are two routes for the hydration process and both processes require that the isopropyl alcohol be separated from water and other by-products by distillation. Taken by mouth or injected into a vein it is used to treat methanol or ethylene glycol toxicity when fomepizole is not available. [31], Isopropyl alcohol is oxidized to form acetone by alcohol dehydrogenase in the liver,[31] and has a biological half-life in humans between 2.5 and 8.0 hours. Water–isopropyl alcohol mixtures have depressed melting points. Abstrahiert man das Wasserstoffatom von einem der beiden endständigen, primären Kohlenstoffatome des Propans, erhält man die n-Propylgruppe, hingegen ergibt die … Mittlerweile kaufe ich aber Isopropanol fertig als 70%ige Lösung. Once soluble, water does not pose the same risk as insoluble water, as it no longer accumulates in the supply lines and freezes but is consumed with the fuel itself. Die großtechnische Herstellung erfolgt auf zwei verschiedenen Wegen, ausgehend von Propen oder von Aceton. Create: 2007-12-05. Isopropyl alcohol may be prepared via the hydrogenation of acetone, however this approach involves an extra step compared to the above methods, as acetone is itself normally prepared from propene via the cumene process. For more information contact us at info@libretexts.org or check out our status page at https://status.libretexts.org. Subsequent hydrolysis of these esters by steam produces isopropyl alcohol, by distillation. [2] Isopropanol ist mit Wasser in jedem Verhältnis homogen mischbar und bildet ein konstant siedendes (azeotropes) Gemisch bei 80,4 °C und 12,1 % Wasseranteil. Alcohols, in various forms, are used within medicine as antiseptics, disinfectants, and as an antidote. Isopropyl alcohol is esterified to give isopropyl acetate, another solvent. Beim Umgang für ausreichende Lüftung sorgen. [16][17] [16] This compound may serve as a chemical reagent in itself, by acting as a dihydrogen donor in transfer hydrogenation.

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