A number of OTH-B and OTH-SW radars are reportedly in operation in China. The system is able to track the movement of air targets at a distance of approximately 3,000 km from the Russia border. Deshalb und wegen der außergewöhnlich kleinen Sendeleistung 30 Watt[8] sind bei Wera gegenseitige Störungen gering. In total, four such stations are planned to be deployed: one in the west and east of the country, two more will be deployed in the north-west and south directions. z-wave  Radar Range calculator Die Impulsfolgefrequenz kann damit auf Werte um etwa 1 kHz angehoben werden. However, the use of bistatic techniques and computer processing can produce higher resolutions, and has been used beginning in the 1990s. Six one-million-watt OTH radars see far beyond the range of conventional microwave radars by bouncing their 5-28-MHz waves off the ionosphere, an ionized layer about 200 km above the earth. Currently on duty are three stations - in the Sea of Okhotsk, the Sea of Japan, and the Caspian Sea.[15]. LTE  sent in two separated bursts. In a scenario of a hypothetical escalation, this will also make it possible to quickly identify preparations for an air attack or for various missile strikes. Other early UK/US systems from the same era include: The United States Air Force Rome Laboratory had the first complete success with their AN/FPS-118 OTH-B. Duga (Russian: Дуга́, literally "arc" or "curve") was a Soviet over-the-horizon radar (OTH) system used as part of the Soviet missile defense early-warning radar network. Over-the-horizon radar (OTH), sometimes called beyond the horizon (BTH), is a type of radar system with the ability to detect targets at very long ranges, typically hundreds to thousands of kilometres, beyond the radar horizon, which is the distance limit for ordinary radar. Um eine angemessene Entfernungsauflösung zu erzielen, musste dieser Sendeimpuls sehr kurz sein (im Bereich weniger Mikrosekunden) und in dieser kurzen Zeit eine extrem hohe Impulsleistung von bis zu 10 Megawatt (Durchschnittsleistung: 600 kW)[1] aufweisen. It is based on a star-shaped antenna field, used for emission and reception (monostatic), and can detect aircraft at a range of more than 2,000 kilometers, in a 360-degree arc. As it detects the objects beyond the radar horizon range with the help of ionosphere, it is known as Over-the-horizon or OTH radar. In an attempt to remove clutter from radar displays, many late-war and post-war radar systems added an acoustic delay line that stored the received signal for exactly the amount of time needed for the next signal pulse to arrive. It has an official range of 3,000 kilometres (1,900 mi), but in 1997 the prototype was able to detect missile launches by China[16] over 5,500 kilometres (3,400 mi) distant. (53°59'00.1" N   43°51'01.2" E). Doppler Radar   "Sunflower" allows operators to automatically beyond the radio horizon simultaneously detect, track and classify up to 300 offshore and 100 air objects, determine their coordinates and provide them targeting complexes and systems of armament of ships and air defense systems. The necessary components of this kind have been specifically developed for the radar station. Radio waves at these frequencies can diffract around obstacles and follow the curving contour of the earth, traveling beyond the horizon. Es erzielt jedoch nicht die Reichweiten von OTH-B. Groundwave propagation gives a rapidly decaying signal at increasing distances over ground and many such broadcast stations have limited range. GE Aerospace was awarded the development contract, expanding the existing east coast system with two additional sectors, while building another three-sector system on the west coast, a two-sector system in Alaska, and a one-sector system facing south. [7] Der Hersteller erklärt, dass dieses System auch tieffliegende Marschflugkörper erkennen kann, wenn es in einem Frequenzbereich von 15 MHz bis 20 MHz arbeitet. Troposphere(upto 12Km), Bluetooth  For this role, the delay line was not usable, and the magnetic drum, recently introduced, provided a convenient and easily controlled variable-delay system. Die verwendeten Frequenzen liegen meist im Kurzwellenbereich und damit weit unterhalb der üblichen Radarfrequenzen (Mikrowellenbereich), dadurch sinkt die Auflösung und die Ortungsgenauigkeit. 802.11ad  This consisted of several antennas positioned to be four wavelengths apart, allowing the system to use phase-shift beam forming to steer the direction of sensitivity and adjust it to cover Singapore, Calcutta and the UK. The French developed an OTH radar called NOSTRADAMUS during the 1990s[18] (NOSTRADAMUS stands for New Transhorizon Decametric System Applying Studio Methods (French: nouveau système transhorizon décamétrique appliquant les méthodes utilisées en studio).) Two operational Duga radars were deployed, one near Chernobyl and Chernihiv in the Ukrainian SSR (present-day Ukraine), the other in eastern Siberia. Figure 2: the transmitters antenna and Exosphere(above 400Km). One set of Chinese OTH-B radars is found on Google map for the transmitter and receiver. In 1992, the Air Force contracted to extend the coverage 15 degrees clockwise on the southern of the three east coast sectors to be able to cover the southeast U.S. border. Die Berechnung der Entfernung ist deswegen schwierig und erhält Ungenauigkeiten. The transmitter's part is built near the town Gorodets(Cyrillic: Городец), Nizhny Novgorod Oblast, Russia. Ein bekanntes System ist das australische Jindalee Operational Radar Network (JORN); die NATO betreibt eine entsprechende Anlage in Zypern (PLUTO System der Royal Air Force). Dieses Verfahren wird auch angewandt, um ozeanografische Messungen (Wellenhöhen, -geschwindigkeit, -abstände und Strömungsrichtungen) mit Hilfe der Bragg-Gleichung zu messen sowie für die Erkennung von Umweltverschmutzungen und eventuell ihrer Verursacher. Their first experimental model appears to be the Veyer (Hand Fan), which was built in 1949. [citation needed]. Card Index of Radar Sets - Strategic Radar Systems, Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 Unported. Radar data were fed to the U.S. Customs/Coast Guard C3I Center, Miami; Joint Task Force 4 Operations Center, Key West; U.S. Southern Command Operations Center, Key West; and U.S. Southern Command Operations Center, Panama.[8]. Thermosphere (above 80Km). November 2011, Russland nimmt Radarsystem in Kaliningrad in Betrieb, Artikel in, dynamische zeitabhängige Verstärkungsregelung, http://www.radartutorial.eu/19.kartei/karte712.de.html, Radar Systems on Shortwave (PDF; 10,0 MB), https://de.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Überhorizontradar&oldid=204102692, „Creative Commons Attribution/Share Alike“. In the radar role, the creeping waves in question are diffracting around the Earth, although processing the returned signal is difficult. I/Q Raw Recording — Audio Sample: Ghadir, is an Iranian over the horizon radar Ghadir is a 360°, 3D-radar, with a ceiling of 300 km, and a maximum range of 1,100 km. Es werden oft elektronische Schwenkverfahren mit Phased-Array-Antennen genutzt. “Starting from December 1st, as part of the Aerospace Forces in the village of Kovylkino, the Republic of Mordovia, the over-the-horizon radar station “Container” will take up combat duty,” the Russian Ministry of Defense said. Auch sind die Echosignale nach einer mehrfachen Reflexion äußerst schwach, so dass auf der Empfangsseite empfindliche Empfänger genutzt werden müssen. [3][N 1]. Die Ausbreitung der elektromagnetischen Wellen muss sich entweder durch Beugung an die Erdoberfläche anpassen, oder gezielt an der Appleton-Schicht der Ionosphäre reflektiert werden. The system operated from July 1976 to December 1989. The first over-the-horizon radar station was commissioned on the territory of Mordavia. As it detects the objects beyond the radar horizon range with the help of ionosphere, it An over-the-horizon radar under construction in the Far East in the mid-1980s would provide long-range detection of aircraft from the Pacific Ocean. Die Radarsignalverarbeitung muss dann die Schwellwerte für die Signalerkennung an die ebenfalls registrierten Reflexionen an der Erdoberfläche (Clutter) entsprechend dem Auftreten dieser Störungen durch eine dynamische zeitabhängige Verstärkungsregelung anpassen. The first production systems were installed in the test site in Virginia for acceptance testing, but were then transitioned to counter the illegal drug trade, covering Central America and the Caribbean. Durch die Laufzeitunterschiede bei einer Mehrfachreflexion ist dieses Konzept jedoch ungenau. Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 Unported license, Let us understand how it works. Die Radarsignalverarbeitung ist jedoch sehr schwierig, da die reflektierenden Schichten sich nicht in einer konstanten Höhe befinden, sondern sich tageszeitlich stark ändern. In 1991, a prototype ROTHR system was installed on the isolated Aleutian Island of Amchitka, Alaska, monitoring the eastern coast of Russia. Blue Canyon Technologies acquired by Raytheon Tech. Page last modified: For these reasons, systems using skywaves typically employ real-time monitoring of the reception of backscattered signals to continuously adjust the frequency of the transmitted signal. Like the ionospheric high-frequency systems, the received signal from these ground wave systems is very low, and demands extremely sensitive electronics. In der Folge kann die Impulsleistung für die gleiche Reichweite nochmals verringert werden. of OTH radar using the same route. In March 1999, the OTH radar NOSTRADAMUS was said to have detected two Northrop B2 Spirit flying to Kosovo. It has a normal operating range of 1,000 km to 3,000 km. [23], The OTH 0100 Radar is capable of monitoring vessels beyond 200 MN (370 KM) away from shore, exceeding the direct line of sight of conventional radars.[24].

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