Table 1 provides evidence against any univocal answer to this question: it highlights the importance of conceptualisation and the differences resulting from distinct points of comparison (social versus intertemporal). As a consequence, we run a sensitivity analysis and re‐examined the conditional relationship between grievances and protest participation based on trimmed samples. King George was furious about the Boston Tea Party. Second, the article shows that the level of political mobilisation substantially moderates this direct link between individual hardship and political activity. The first mechanism, theorised in the social movement literature (Kriesi et al. Colonists dressed up as Native Americans threw 342 chests of tea into Boston Harbor worth more than one million dollars worth of tea into Boston Harbor to protest the British Tea Act. How do economic grievances affect citizens’ inclination to protest? { bidder: 'openx', params: { unit: '539971066', delDomain: '' }}, googletag.pubads().setCategoryExclusion('lcp').setCategoryExclusion('resp').setCategoryExclusion('wprod'); { bidder: 'criteo', params: { networkId: 7100, publisherSubId: 'cdo_leftslot' }}, 'min': 0, { bidder: 'ix', params: { siteId: '555365', size: [120, 600] }}, A second strand of literature also emphasises a relative aspect of grievances, but focuses on the importance of a temporal dimension of comparison: the importance of a deterioration in the economic circumstances. name: "pbjs-unifiedid", iasLog("criterion : cdo_pc = dictionary"); { bidder: 'sovrn', params: { tagid: '387232' }}, { bidder: 'pubmatic', params: { publisherId: '158679', adSlot: 'cdo_rightslot2' }}]}]; On the micro‐level, we control for well‐known alternative individual determinants of protest participation: education, gender, age, employment status, union/organisational membership and being in a relationship (see, e.g., Solt 2015). { bidder: 'appnexus', params: { placementId: '11654157' }}, var pbMobileLrSlots = [ ax to grind A private or selfish motive, a personal stake; a grievance or complaint, especially a chronic one. In so doing, we avoid both a too simplistic operationalisation based on objective status, as well as an entirely subjective indicator that entails risks of tautology when it comes to protest behaviour. Use the link below to share a full-text version of this article with your friends and colleagues. googletag.pubads().disableInitialLoad(); Three potential methodological downsides have been emphasised in particular: the choice of the data selection scheme, selection bias and description bias (see Earl et al. Despite – or exactly because of – its popularity, it has attracted criticism. { bidder: 'appnexus', params: { placementId: '19042093' }}, { bidder: 'criteo', params: { networkId: 7100, publisherSubId: 'cdo_topslot' }}, With such a large portion of Russian society in the worker/peasant category, many would have felt some sympathy with socialist ideas. { bidder: 'pubmatic', params: { publisherId: '158679', adSlot: 'cdo_btmslot' }}]}]; { bidder: 'pubmatic', params: { publisherId: '158679', adSlot: 'cdo_btmslot' }}]}, bids: [{ bidder: 'rubicon', params: { accountId: '17282', siteId: '162036', zoneId: '776160', position: 'atf' }}, { bidder: 'appnexus', params: { placementId: '11654156' }}, Democracy provides people with means to voice their disagreements, organise collectively and overturn elites democratically, which is why economic inequality may also stimulate democratic engagement (e.g., Gurr 1970; Brady 2004; Oliver 2001). { bidder: 'sovrn', params: { tagid: '387232' }}, userSync: { params: { iasLog("exclusion label : wprod"); Effects of Economic Inequality on Protest Participation. {code: 'ad_rightslot2', pubstack: { adUnitName: 'cdo_rightslot2', adUnitPath: '/2863368/rightslot2' }, mediaTypes: { banner: { sizes: [[300, 250], [120, 600], [160, 600]] } }, iasLog("criterion : sfr = cdo_dict_english"); Beyond the logged odds ratios, Figure 1 also displays the underlying distribution of this variable. storage: { { bidder: 'criteo', params: { networkId: 7100, publisherSubId: 'cdo_rightslot2' }}, googletag.pubads().setTargeting("cdo_dc", "english"); { bidder: 'onemobile', params: { dcn: '8a969411017171829a5c82bb4deb000b', pos: 'cdo_topslot_728x90' }}, The idea that social unrest evolves as a reaction to injustice and widespread deprivation figured prominently in traditional Marxian theories on protest and revolution. iasLog("criterion : cdo_dc = english"); This fear was not without cause since Nicholas II’s ministers were very reactionary and created an unstable political situation for him. iasLog("exclusion label : resp"); The first are sustained by individuals whose basic needs are met, which is why they have resources to devote to social movements, while the latter are motivated by ‘beneficiary members’ who protest worsening individual conditions. {code: 'ad_btmslot_a', pubstack: { adUnitName: 'cdo_btmslot', adUnitPath: '/2863368/btmslot' }, mediaTypes: { banner: { sizes: [[300, 250], [320, 50], [300, 50]] } }, { bidder: 'ix', params: { siteId: '195464', size: [120, 600] }}, Existing studies have examined the political reactions to either economic grievances compared to others (Kern et al 2015; Solt 2015) or economic grievances compared to people's previous experiences (Bernburg 2015; Grasso & Giugni 2016; Rüdig & Karyotis 2014) but never contrasted both forms of economic hardship directly. { bidder: 'sovrn', params: { tagid: '346698' }}, }); { bidder: 'ix', params: { siteId: '195466', size: [728, 90] }}, ga('create', 'UA-31379-3',{cookieDomain:'',siteSpeedSampleRate: 10}); Recently, Grasso and Giugni (2016) have rightly pointed to this all‐too often disregarded interaction effect and introduced the institutional context and the economic environment as mediating factors in the analysis. More precisely, political mobilisation and opportunity are crucial context conditions that influence the action repertoire of individuals and decisively affect the micro‐level link between grievances and protest.

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